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Published: Thu, January 26, 2017
World | By Lorena Waters

Anti-Smooth-Muscle Antibody: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels

Anti-Smooth-Muscle Antibody: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection and Panels

Description

Smooth-muscle antibodies were first discovered in 1965 by Johnson et al when they demonstrated that antibodies in the sera of patients with chronic liver disease were able to bind to the smooth muscle of Rat stomachs.These antibodies were later demonstrated to be present in other conditions, including viral hepatitis, malignancy, heroin use, and other autoimmune liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis.As such, the specificity of these antibodies to smooth muscle was questioned, especially In 1973, Gabbiani et al suggested that smooth-muscle antibodies were probably towards actin when they demonstrated elimination of all smooth- Muscle antibody activity in the sera of 5 patients with chronic active hepatitis using a preparation of platelet-derived actin called thrombosthenin A.These findings gave reason for the broad range of tissue reactivity of smooth- Muscle antibodies; Actin is a ubiquitous contractile protein that can be found in non-muscle cells. Further studies showed that tubular smooth-muscle antibody (SMA-T) and glomerular smooth-muscle antibody (SMA-G) immunofluorescence staining patterns, which predominantly react with filamentous Actin (F-actin), were the main antigenic moiety of smooth-muscle antibodies.This was further reported to be predominantly in a group of patients with chronic active hepatitis later classified as autoimmune hepatitis type 1 (AIH-1) P>

Immunologic detection

Asthma titers can be tested in the evaluation of patients with liver disease suspected to have an underlying autoimmune etiology. The clinical presentation of such patients, however, is widely and can be subdivided into the following:

Asymptomatic patients with transaminitis

Fulminant hepatic failure

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Chronic active hepatitis

Owing to the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations, including the possibility of overlap syndromes , ASMA testing can be included as part of a panel of tests to determine the etiology of liver dysfunction.

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